Scholarly Safety Work

The following is a list of Dr. Ludwig's Scholarly work.  If you would like a copy of any of the articles below please contact Dr. Ludwig by clicking here.  Dr. Ludwig's Safety Stories which are written for safety professionals and their teams can be accessed directly by clicking here.  Dr. Ludwig's full Scholarly Vita can be viewed by clicking here.

TimLudwig@Safety-Doc.com

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Dr. Ludwig's Safety-Related Scholarly Articles


Bogard, K., Ludwig, T.D., Staats, C., & Kretchmer, D. (2015).  An Industry’s Call to Understand the Contingencies involved in Process Safety:  Normalization of Deviance and Interlocking Contingencies.  Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 35, 70-80

Ludwig, T.D. (2015).  Groceries should be labeled – Not people:  Ask employees to “do” something, not “be” something.  Industrial Safety & Hygiene News, 49 (8) 88.

Ludwig, T.D. (2015).  A Culture of Reporting goes beyond Injury Rates.  Industrial Safety & Hygiene News, 49 (6) 72.

Ludwig, T.D. (2015).  When Complacency Creeps in: Identify, Observe & Discuss drifts in performance.  Industrial Safety & Hygiene News, 49 (2) 91.

Ludwig, T.D. (2014).  The Anatomy of Pencil Whipping.  Professional Safety, 59, 47-50. 

Camden, M.C., & Ludwig, T.D. (2013).  Absenteeism in Health Care:  Using Metacontingency Feedback to Reinforce Attendance with Certified Nursing Assistants.  Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 33:3, 165-184, DOI: 10.1080/01608061.2013.814521

Frazier, C.B., Ludwig, T.D., Whitaker, B., & Roberts, D.S. (2013).  A Hierarchical Factor Analysis of a Safety Culture Survey.  Journal of Safety Research, 45, 15-28.

Ludwig, T.D., Carvelas, W., Engelbrecht, C. & McClintock, M. (2012).  Actively Caring for Africa (DRA Mineral Products) in E.S. Geller (Ed.), Actively Caring for People: Cultivating a Culture of Compassion (139-146).  Newport, VA: Make a Difference.

Ludwig, T.D., & Frazier, C.B. (2012).  Employee Engagement and Organizational Behavior Management.  Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 32 (1), 75-82.

Ludwig, T.D., Geller, E.S., & Clarke, S.W. (2010).  The additive impact of group and individual publicaly-displayed feedback:  Examining individual response patterns and response generalization in a safe-driving occupational intervention.  In Performance Psychology: Theory and Application in Industry, Sports, and Behavioral Healthcare (Luiselli, J.K. Editor). A special issue of Behavior Modification, 34 (5), 338-366.

Ludwig, T. D., & Houmanfar, R. (Ed.s) (2010).  Understanding Complexity in Organizations: Behavioral Systems.  Philidelphia: Routledge.

Stephens, S.D., & Ludwig, T.D. (2005).  Improving anesthesia nurse compliance with Universal Precautions using group goals and public feedback.  Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 25 (2), 37-71.

Ludwig, T.D., Buchholz, C., & Clarke, S.W. (2005). Using Social Marketing to Increase the Use of Helmets among Bicyclists.  Journal of American College Health, 54 (1), 51-58.

 Ludwig, T.D., Biggs, J., Wagner, S., & Geller, E.S. (2002). Using public feedback and competitive rewards to increase the Safe Driving Behaviors of Pizza Deliverers. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 21 (4), 75-104.

Ludwig, T.D., & Geller, E.S. (1999).  Behavioral impact of a corporate driving policy: Undesirable side-effects reflect countercontrol. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 19 (2), 25-34.

Ludwig, T.D., & Geller, E.S. (1997).  Assigned versus participatory goal setting and response generalization:  Managing injury control among professional pizza deliverers.  Journal of Applied Psychology, 82 (2), 253-261.

Ludwig, T.D., & Geller, E.S. (1999). Behavior change among agents of a community safety program:  Pizza deliverers advocate community safety belt use. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 19 (2), 3-24.

Ludwig, T.D., & Geller, E.S. (1991).  Improving the Driving Practices of Pizza Deliverers:  Potential Moderating Effects of Age and Driving Record.  Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24 (1), 31-44.

Geller, E.S., & Ludwig, T.D. (1991).  A Behavior Change Taxonomy for Improving Road Safety.  In Proceedings of the OECD International Road Safety Symposium, September 19-21,1990, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Bergholz, K.S., Wangler, J., & Ludwig, T.D. (1990).  Increasing safety belt use in community settings:  An examination of different intervention strategies.  Virginia Journal of Science, 41 (2), 116.

Geller, E.S., Berry, T.D., Ludwig, T.D, Evans, R.E., Gilmore, M.R., & Clarke, S.W. (1990).  A Conceptual Framework for Developing and Evaluating Behavior Change Interventions for Injury Control.  Health Education Research: Theory and Practice, 5 (2), 125-137.

Geller, E.S., Ludwig, T.D., Gilmore, M.R., & Berry, T.D. (1990).  A Taxonomy of Behavior Change: Techniques for Community Intervention.  The Community Psychologist, 23 (2), 4-6.


Articles published in Industrial Safety and Hygiene News

Ludwig, T.D. (2014).  Checklist success: You don’t want a pile of identical photocopies. Industrial Safety & Hygiene News, 48 (4) 42-44.

Ludwig, T.D. (2014).  Trolling for rule-breaking behavior: But are you missing root causes beneath the surface?. Industrial Safety & Hygiene News, 48 (1) 58.

Ludwig, T.D. (2013).  Dangers of driving on autopilot. Industrial Safety & Hygiene News, 47 (10) 34-36.

Ludwig, T.D. (2013).  Thank someone for working safe? Industrial Safety & Hygiene News, 47 (7) 58.

Ludwig, T.D. (2013).  Safety processes need constant reinforcement. Industrial Safety & Hygiene News, 47 (5) 30-32

Ludwig, T.D. (2013).  It takes Thick Skin: Resilient Resolve handles Complaints and Ridicule. Industrial Safety & Health News, 47 (2) 20-21.

Ludwig, T.D. (2012).  The immense challenge in South African mines:  Don’t shrink from building a safety culture.  Industrial Safety & Hygiene News, 46 (10) 52-54.

Ludwig, T.D. (2012).  Saved by rock and roll: Dad gets a safety lesson from his son.  Industrial Safety & Hygiene News, 46 (6) 60-61.

Ludwig, T.D. (2012).  Tumbling down the Stairs: Who takes responsibility for on injured intern.  Industrial Safety & Hygiene News, 46 (2) 20-21.

Ludwig, T.D. (2011).  Put your Reputation on the Line:  Show Safety’s Value in Time and Money.  Industrial Safety & Hygiene News, 45 (10) 54.

Ludwig, T.D. (2011).  Its all about Ownership.  Industrial Safety & Hygiene News, 45 (6).36-38.

Ludwig, T.D. (2011).  What you Learn from Falling on you Butt.  Industrial Safety & Hygiene News, 45 (5), 38-39.

Ludwig, T.D. (2010).  When Dad is a Safety Geek.  Industrial Safety & Hygiene News, 44 (6), pp. 30.


Dr. Ludwig's Safety-Related Keynote Presentations

Ludwig, T.D. (2013).  Driving the Lone Worker’s Autopilot toward Situational Awareness. Behavioral Safety Now, Reno, NV.

Ludwig, T.D. (2013).  You Can’t Fix Stupid: Turn the Lights Back On!  Keynote presentation at the 17th People-Based Safety Conference, San Antonio, TX

Ludwig, T.D. (2013). Enhancing Safe Behavior in People Working Alone: Driving Autopilots toward Situational Awareness.  Magistral lecture (Keynote) at the 7th European Conference on Behavior-Based Safety and Behavior Analysis, Verona, Italy.

Ludwig, T.D. (2013). How to make an effective training: elements of Instructional Design for achieving organization's goals.  Lecture at the 7th European Conference on Behavior-Based Safety and Behavior Analysis, Verona, Italy.

Ludwig, T.D. (2013).  The ABC’s of 1’s and 0’s: How ABA is Taking over the World and Doesn’t even Know It.  Invited address.  Kansas Association for Behavior Analysis annual meeting, Lawrence, KS.

Ludwig, T.D. (2012).  Metacontingencies are out to change the world.  Invited address.  Swedish Association for Behavior Analysis annual meeting, Stockholm, Sweden.

Ludwig, T.D. (2012).  Its not my car!  The Participation Factor.  Keynote Address.  Behavioral Safety Now, Jacksonville, FL.

Ludwig, T.D. (2012).  The Anatomy of Pencil Whipping. Behavioral Safety Now, Jacksonville, FL.

Ludwig, T.D. (2012). Organizational Behavior Management: Beyond Behavioral Safety.  Magistral lecture (Keynote) at the 6th European Conference on Behavior-Based Safety and Behavior Analysis, Rome, Italy.

Ludwig, T.D. (2012). The Science Behind Behavior-Based Safety Processes.  Lecture at the 6th European Conference on Behavior-Based Safety and Behavior Analysis, Rome, Italy.

Ludwig, T.D. (2012).  Everything I Know about Metacontingencies I Learned from my Kids.  North Carolina Association for Behavior Analysis, Winston-Salem, NC.

Ludwig, T.D. (2011).  Leading Health, Safety, and Environment (HSE) Transformation in your Organization.  HSE Transformational Leadership in the Nigerian Oil and Gas Industry. Abuja, Nigeria.

Ludwig, T.D. (2011).  The Research behind Behavior-Based Safety.  Keynote Address, Safety Culture Forum, Beijing, China.

Ludwig, T.D. (2011).  Everything I Know about Metacontingencies I Learned from my Kids.  Southeastern Association for Behavior Analysis, Charlotte, NC.

Ludwig, T.D. (2011).  Behavioral Ecology and Response Generalization: On the Necessity of Structure in an Arbitrary World.  Invited Colloquium presented to the Department of Psychology, University of Nevada. Reno, NV.

Ludwig, T.D. (2011).  Everything I Know about Safety I Learned from my Kids.  Keynote address, Behavioral Safety Now, Reno NV.

Ludwig, T.D. (2011).  Applied Research in Behavior-Based Safety: An Evidence Based Practice.  Keynote Address, 1st Annual International Conference on Behavior-Based Safety and Safety Management, Beijing, China.

Ludwig, T.D. (2011).  The Leadership of Behavior-Based Safety: Understanding variance around risk, managing fronts, and using BBS for positive culture change.  Keynote Address, Occupational Health & Safety Management Summit, Bogota, Columbia.

Ludwig, T.D. (2011).  Its all about Ownership: It’s not my car.  Keynote Address, People-Based Safety Conference, Charlotte, NC.

Alavosius, M., Ludwig, T.D., Sigurdsson, S. (2011).  Cambridge Center BBS Accreditation: What is is and how it sustains outstanding safety performance?  Workshop presented at Behavioral Safety Now, Reno, NV.

Ludwig, T.D. (2011).  Assessing Safety Culture:  How to know what you may not know.  Workshop presented at Behavioral Safety Now, Reno, NV.

Ludwig, T.D. (2011).  The LEADership Card for Safety.  Presentation at Behavioral Safety Now, Reno, NV.

Ludwig, T.D. (2010).  Leading Safety.  Workshop at the People-Based Safety Conference, Charlotte, NC.

Ludwig, T.D., & Alavosius, M. (2010).  Learning from the Best in BBS:  Panel Discussion from CCBS Accredited Companies.  General Session Panel presented at Behavioral Safety Now, Houston, TX.

Ludwig, T.D. (2010).  The ABC’s of Behavior-Based Safety.  Invited address for Behavioral Safety Now, Houston, TX.

Ludwig, T.D., & Alavosius, M. (2010).  Cambridge Center BBS Accreditation: What is is and how it sustains outstanding safety performance?  Workshop presented at Behavioral Safety Now, Houston, TX.

Ludwig, T.D. (2010).  Strategic Safety Leadership.  Workshop at the People-Based Safety Conference, Traverse City, MI.

Ludwig, T.D. (2010).  Everything I Know about Safety I Learned from my Kids.  Keynote address at the People-Based Safety Conference, Traverse City, MI

Ludwig, T.D. (2009).  Behavior-Based Safety 101: The Basics.  Invited address for Behavioral Safety Now, Jacksonville, FL.

Ludwig, T.D. (2008).  Successful Implementation of Safety Programs: Forward on all Fronts.  Invited Workshop address for Behavioral Safety Now, Reno, NV.

Ludwig, T.D., & Alavosius, M. (2009).  Cambridge Center BBS Accreditation: What is is and how it sustains outstanding safety performance?  Workshop presented at Behavioral Safety Now, Jacksonville, FL.

Ludwig, T.D. (2009).  Thinking Strategically about Safety.  Presentation at the People-Based Safety Conference, Denver, CO.

Ludwig, T.D. (2008). Leading Safety Culture Change.  Invited address for the  American Chamber of Commerse (AmCham)12th Annual HSSE Conference & Exhibition, Trinidad, Trinidad & Tobego.

Ludwig, T.D. (2008). Interventions to Improve the Safety of Occupational Driving.  Invited address for the International Conference on Occupational Risk Prevention, A Coruna, Spain.

Ludwig, T.D. (2007).  Step-Function Improvement for Behavior Safety Programs.  Invited Keynote address for Behavioral Safety Now, Kansas City, MO.

Ludwig, T.D. (2007).  Forward on all Fronts: Behavior and the Performance Culture.  Invited workshop at the Behavior Management Training Leadership Conference, Darington, United Kingdom.

Ludwig, T.D. (2006).   The side-effects of behavioral based safety.  Invited Paper presented at Behavioral Safety Now, Kansas City, MO.

 Ludwig, T.D. (2003).  Skinner box on wheels: Today’s short haul trucking fleets.  Invited paper presented at the Organizational Behavior Management Network Meetings, St. Pete, FL.

Ludwig, T.D. (2001). How to motivate participation in occupational safety programming.  Invited session presented at a CDC-sponsored conference titled Injury Prevention in the New Millenium:  Changing behavior to reduce occupational injury and illness, Kalamazoo, MI.

Ludwig, T.D. (2001). Evaluating a Taxonomy of Intervention Strategies for Behavior Change.  Invited paper presented at the Organizational Behavior Management Network Meetings, Tampa Bay, FL.


Dr. Ludwig's Safety-Related Research Presentations

Kretschmer, D., & Ludwig, T.D. (2014).  From Feedback to Fluency.  Poster presented at the annual convention of the Association for Behavior Analysis International, Chicago, IL.

Ludwig, T.D. (2014).  Discussant.  Behavioral Community Intervention and Actively Caring: From Dream Chasing to Making a Difference.  Symposium presented at the annual convention of the Association for Behavior Analysis International, Chicago, IL.

Ludwig, T.D. (2013).  Beyond the Success Stories:  Understanding the Behaviors that can Destroy a Behavioral Safety Program.  Symposium presented at the annual convention of the Association for Behavior Analysis International, Minneapolis, MN.

Ludwig, T.D. (2013).  You Think your Reinforcing Participation in Behavioral Safety but your Reinforcing Pencil Whipping Instead.  Paper presented at the annual convention of the Association for Behavior Analysis International, Minneapolis, MN.

Ludwig, T.D. (2013).  Panelist.  Finding and celebrating management practices that produce results.  Panel presented at the Organizational Behavior Management Conference hosted by the California Association for Behavior Analysis, Anaheim, CA.

Alavosius, M., Ludwig, T.D., Kernan, D. (2012).  Cambridge Center BBS Accreditation: What is is and how it sustains outstanding safety performance?  Workshop presented at Behavioral Safety Now, Reno, NV.

Ludwig, T.D.  & Austin, J.A. (2012).  Turning Ownership Over To The Employees: A Management "Practice" That Yielded Results.  Paper presented at the Association for Behavior Analysis International, Seattle, WA.

Ludwig, T.D. (2012).  Symposium Chairperson.  A Review Of Management Practices That Produce Results In Behavioral Safety.  Symposium presented at the Association for Behavior Analysis International, Seattle, WA.

Boitnott, M.K., & Ludwig, T.D. (2012).  The cost of participation:  reducing response effort to increase participation and quality in peer-to-peer observations.  Paper presented at the Association for Behavior Analysis International, Seattle, WA.

Alavosius, M., Ludwig, T.D., Sigurdsson, S. (2011).  Cambridge Center BBS Accreditation: What is is and how it sustains outstanding safety performance?  Workshop presented at Behavioral Safety Now, Reno, NV.

Ludwig, T.D. (2011).  Assessing Safety Culture:  How to know what you may not know.  Workshop presented at Behavioral Safety Now, Reno, NV.

Ludwig, T.D. (2011).  The LEADership Card for Safety.  Presentation at Behavioral Safety Now, Reno, NV.

Ludwig, T.D. (2011).  Leading Safety.  Workshop at the People-Based Safety Conference, Charlotte, NC.

Reimer, D. (Chair); Alavosius, M.A., Ludwig, T.D., & Wells, J.P. (Panel) (2011).  Monetary Analysis: Measuring and Intervention’s value.  Panel presented at the Association for Behavior Analysis International conference, Denver, CO.

Ludwig, T.D., & Alavosius, M. (2010).  Cambridge Center BBS Accreditation: What is is and how it sustains outstanding safety performance?  Workshop presented at Behavioral Safety Now, Houston, TX.

Ludwig, T.D. (2010).  Strategic Safety Leadership.  Workshop at the People-Based Safety Conference, Traverse City, MI.

Ludwig, T.D. (2010) Chairperson.  Behavioral approaches to pandemic planning and prevention in Hospital Settings.  Symposium presented at the annual conference of the Association for Behavioral Analysis International, Austin, TX.

Grosshuesch, A., Ludwig, T.D. & Frazier, C. (2010).  Behavioral Systems Planning for a Pandemic in a Major Regional Medical Center to Assure Staff Availability.  Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for Behavioral Analysis International, Austin, TX.

Ludwig, T.D., Harshbarger, D., & Hopkins, B.L. (2010).  Sustaining world-class safety performance through innovation. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for Behavioral Analysis International, Austin, TX.

Ludwig, T.D., & Harshbarger, D. (2010).  Back from the Brink:  Using Behavioral Based Safety to management safety after a Three-fold increase in production.  Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for Behavioral Analysis International, Austin, TX.

Alavosius, M. P., Harshbarger, D., & Ludwig, T.D. (2010).  An Electrical Contractor adopts and adjusts a Proven System. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for Behavioral Analysis International, Austin, TX.

Bumgardner, S, &  Ludwig, T.D. (2009). Evaluating Peer Feedback on the Safety Behaviors of Landscapers.  Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for Behavior Analysis, Phoenix, AZ.

Lackey, M., Lanzendorfer, L, Boyles, A., & Ludwig, T.D. (2009). The Effect of Task Clarification, Goal Setting, and Supervisor Feedback on Increasing Electronic Updating of a Police Software System. Poster presented at the OBM Behavioral Leadership Conference, Cocoa Beach, FL.

Bumgardner, S, &  Ludwig, T.D. (2009). Evaluating Peer-to-Peer Observation and Feedback on use of Personal Protective Equipment. Poster presented at the OBM Behavioral Leadership Conference, Cocoa Beach, FL.

Camden, M.C., & Ludwig, T.D. (2008).  Absenteeism in Healthcare:  Using Metacontingencies to Reinforce Attendance with Certified Nursing Assistants.  Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for Behavior Analysis, Chicago, IL.

Harshbarger, D., Ludwig, T.D., & Alavosius, M. (2007).  Behavioral Safety Accreditation: Why it is Good for your Company?  How do we become accredited?  Workshop presented at Behavioral Safety Now, Kansas City, MO.

Ludwig, T.D. (2007). Symposium Chairperson.  Improving Healthcare Behaviors and Outcomes with Applied Behavior Analysis. Symposium presented at the annual conference of the Association for Behavior Analysis, San Diego, CA.

Gravinese, K.R. & Ludwig, T.D. (2007). Differential Staffing Reinforcement in a Nursing Home Reduced Response Latency to Call Bells. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for Behavior Analysis, San Diego, CA.

Grattan, L., Hardesty, A., O’Neal, B. & Ludwig, T.D. (2007). Improvement of Customer Safety in a Pharmacy:  Task Clarification, Goal Setting, and Feedback. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for Behavior Analysis, San Diego, CA.

Alavosius, M.P., Ludwig, T.D., & Harshbarger, D. (2007). Cambridge Center Accreditation of Workplace Safety Programs.  Panel Discussion presented at the annual conference of the Association for Behavior Analysis, San Diego, CA.

Gravinese, K., & Ludwig, T.D. (2007). Dirty Laundry and Dirty Dishes: Reducing Call Bell Response Latency by Altering Contingencies Through Differential Staffing Reinforcement.  Poster presented at the OBM Conference, Sarasota, FL.

Rose, H., Martin, H.M., & Ludwig, T.D. (2007). The Effects of Task Clarification, Self-Monitoring, and Performance Feedback on Lifeguard Cleaning and Safety Behaviors.  Poster presented at the OBM Conference, Sarasota, FL.

Grattan, L, Hardesty, A., O’Neal, B., & Ludwig, T.D. (2007). Improvement of Customer Safety in a Pharmacy:  Task Clarification, Goal Setting, and Feedback.  Poster presented at the OBM Conference, Sarasota, FL.

Ludwig, T.D. (2006).  Discussant. Bringing Applied Behavior Analysis into the Healthcare Setting.  Symposium presented at the annual conference of the Association for Behavior Analysis, Atlanta, GA.

Ludwig, T.D., (2006). Reducing blood-borne pathogen exposure among nurses through behavioral interventions.  Poster presented at the annual conference of the Society for Behavioral Medicine, San Francisco, CA.

Ludwig, T.D. (2004).    Symposium Chairperson. Data driven applications in Organizational Behavior Management (OBM).  Symposium presented at the annual conference of the Association for Behavior Analysis, Boston, MA.

Ludwig, T.D. (2003).    Symposium Chairperson. Examining differing goal setting and feedback techniques to improve occupational safety behaviors.  Symposium presented at the annual conference of the Association for Behavior Analysis, San Francisco, CA.

Geller, E.S., symposium chair; Ludwig, T.D., discussant (2003). The Applicability of Using Self-Management Techniques in Industrial Safety and Health. Symposium presented at the annual conference of the Association for Behavior Analysis, San Francisco, CA.

Stephens, S.D., Rice, D., Graham, N., & Ludwig, T.D. (2002).  Using goal setting and feedback to increase compliance with universal precautions. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for Behavior Analysis, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Ludwig, T.D., Phillips, H., Gilkey, J., & Justice, A. (2002).  Publicizing individual feedback with group feedback:  Capturing the resistant holdouts. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Southeastern Psychological Association, Orlando, FL.

Stephens, S.D., Randolph, K., Wingfield, M., Benton, J., & Ludwig, T.D. (2002).  Increasing hand washing, needle recapping, and glove wearing amoung anesthetists.  Paper presented at the annual conference of the Southeastern Psychological Association, Orlando, FL.

Ludwig, T.D., & Peret Gentil, S. (2001).  The impact of a safe driving competition on winners and non-winners.  Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for Behavior Analysis, New Orleans, LA.

Geller, E.S. symposium chairperson; Ludwig, T.D., Discussant  (2001).  Community analysis and intervention for public health and safety. Symposium presented at the annual conference of the Association for Behavior Analysis, New Orleans, LA.

Ludwig, T.D. (2000). Symposuim Chairperson.  Predicting safe occupational driving. Symposium presented at the 15th annual conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, New Orleans, LA.

Ludwig, T.D., & Hairston, D., (2000). Evaluating Multiple Predictors with Safe Driving Behaviors of Part-Time Deliverers. Paper presented at the 15th annual conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, New Orleans, LA.

Ludwig, T.D., Johnson, H., & Bateman, M. (2000).  Catching those who fall through the cracks:  Adding public individualized feedback to group goal setting.  Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for Behavior Analysis, Washington, DC.

Geller, E.S., Ludwig, T.D., & Clark, R. (2000).  What kind of behavioral safety feedback?  Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for Behavior Analysis, Washington, DC.

Glindemann, K.E., Symposium Chairperson (2000). Behavioral Observations of alcohol consumption in naturalistic settings.  Timothy D. Ludwig, Discussant.  Symposium presented at the annual conference of the Association for Behavior Analysis, Washington, DC. 

Ludwig, T.D. (1999).  Systematic treatments of goal setting and feedback to increase safe driving among pizza deliverers.  Invited address for the Organizational Behavior Management Network meetings, Daytona, FL    

Ludwig, T.D. (1999): Symposium Chairperson.  Reducing Adolescent Risk Behavior: Alcohol, Bike Helmet Use, and Driving Safety.  Symposium presented at the Southeastern Psychological Association conference, Savannah, GA.

Hairston, D., Johnson, H., Price, D., & Ludwig, T.D. (1999). Sensation Seeking and Impulsivity as Predictors of Driving Behaviors.  Paper presented at the Southeastern Psychological Association conference, Savannah, GA.

Walker, N.R., Stearns, D., Poole, A., & Ludwig, T.D. (1999).  Peer Agents, Pledge Cards, and Accessibility to Promote Bike Helmet Use. Paper presented at the Southeastern Psychological Assoication conference, Savannah, GA.

Pham, T., Mackie, L., & Ludwig, T.D. (1999).  Increasing Driving Safety in Pizza Deliverers using Community Publicity. Paper presented at the Southeastern Psychological Association conference, Savannah, GA.

Johnson, M.J., Clarke, S.W., Ludwig T.D., Walker, R.W., & Messick, B. (1999).  Increasing bike helmet use on a college campus:  The Grateful Head project.  Paper presented at the Association for Behavior Analysis conference, Chicago, IL.

Hairston, D., Johnson, H., & Price, D. (T. Ludwig, mentor) (1999). "Impulsive pizza": Investigating the relationship between specific personality traits and safe driving behavior.  Paper presented at the Appalachian State University Research Day.

Ludwig, T.D. (1998). Symposuim Chairperson.  Predicting, training, and motivating safe driving behaviors in delivery occupations. Symposium presented at the 13th annual conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Dallas, TX.

Caplinger, J.A., Ludwig, T.D., & Benton, Y. (1998).  Providing pizza deliverers normative feedback and rewards for safe driving. Paper presented at the 13th annual conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Dallas, TX.

Biggs, J., Ludwig T.D., & Reynolds, S. (1998).  Proximal versus distal goal setting as a safe driving intervention. Paper presented at the 13th annual conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Dallas, TX.

Terrizzi, T., Edwards, S., McInnis, M.C., & Ludwig, T.D., (1998).  Delivering safely:  Multiple predictors for selecting safe deliverers. Paper presented at the 13th annual conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Dallas, TX.

Clarke, S.W., Ludwig, T.D., Avis, M., & Michael, P. (1997).  Behavior-based strategies for increasing safe driving practices.  Paper presented at the Behavior Now Conference, Houston, TX.

Wiegand, D., Biggs, J., Terrizzi, T., & Ludwig, T. (1997).  The effects of normative feedback and competition on pizza delivery drivers.  Paper presented at the Organizational Behavior Management Network meetings, Orlando, FL.

Ludwig, T.D., Wagner, S., & Dodd, J.D. (1997).  Addressing driver safety using goal setting interventions with pizza deliverers.  Paper presented at the annual conference of the Society of Behavioral Medicine, San Francisco, CA.

Clarke, S.W., Michael, P.G., Guillaumot, J.J., & Ludwig, T.D. (1997).  Behavioral science approaches to improving the driving of delivery employees.  Paper presented at the 12 annual conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, St. Louis, MO.

 Ludwig, T.D. (1997).  Symposium Chairperson.  Promoting driving safety among adolescents, college-aged, and working adults.  Symposium presented at the annual conference of the Southeastern Psychological Association, Atlanta, GA.

Geller, E.S. (1997).  Large-scale intervention to improve health, safety, and the environment.  Timothy Ludwig, Discussant.  Symposium presented at the annual conference of the Southeastern Psychological Association, Atlanta, GA.

Wagner, S., Ludwig, T.D., Edwards, S. & Drake, D. (1997).  Normative versus group feedback interventions on pizza deliverers' driving behaviors.  Paper presented at the annual conference of the Southeastern Psychological Association, Atlanta, GA.

 Depasquale, J.P., Clarke, S.W., Emanuel, S., & Ludwig, T.D. (1996).  Effects of increasing bicycle helmet use on other safe biking. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Southeastern Psychological Association, Norfolk, VA.

Ludwig, T.D., & Glindemann, K.E. (1995).  The differential effect of assigned vs. participatory-set goal setting on response generalization.  Paper presented at the 10th annual conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (Division 14 APA), Orlando, FL.

Ludwig, T.D., & Brendel, J. (1995).  Behavioral co-occurrence and response generalization in pervention interventions.  Paper presented at the 21st annual convention of the Association for Behavior Analysis, Washington, D.C.

Ludwig, T.D. (1995).  Symposium Chairperson.  Actively caring for communitywide health and safety:  Evaluations of intrinsic and extrinsic interventions.  Symposium presented at the 21st annual convention of the Association for Behavior Analysis, Washington, D.C.

Glindemann, K. E., & Ludwig, T. D. (1994).  Examining the relationship between intentions to consume alcohol and actual drinking behavior:  A series of field tests.  Paper presented at the 20th annual convention of the Association for Behavior Analysis, Atlanta, GA.

Ludwig, T.D., Geller, E.S., & Holland, M.S. (1993).  An eco-behavioral analysis of commercial driving practices:  A field study of behavioral co-occurrence.  Presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Behavior Analysis, Chicago, IL.

Ludwig, T.L., Geller, E.S., & Roberts, D.S. (1992).  A direct comparison between assigned versus participatory set goals:  Which one delivers?. Presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.

Geller, E.S. (1992).  Roundtable discussion involving:  S.R. Roberts, T.D. Ludwig, T.D. Berry, and K.E. Glindemann.   Industry and community applications of behavioral science:  Making a Difference.  Presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.

Roberts, D.S., Geller, E.S., & Ludwig, T.L. (1992).  Industry based research to develop an actively caring model for injury control.  Presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.

Ludwig, T.D. (1992).  Symposium Chairperson.  Behavioral community psychology:  Identifying attitudes, behaviors, and intentions for intervention effectiveness.  Division 27 (Regional) program at the annual meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association, Knoxville, TN.

Ludwig, T. D., Cho, S. A., & Scanlon, J. C. (1992).  Predicting individual driving behaviors and responsiveness to safe driving interventions.  Division 27 (Regional) program at the annual meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association, Knoxville, TN.

Yankay, C. L., Molnar, A.E., & Ludwig, T.L. (1991).  Can driving record and locus of control predict future driving behaviors?  Presented at the annual meeting of the Southeastern Association for Behavior Analysis, Charleston, SC.

Ludwig, T.D., Geller, E.S., & Yankay, C. (1991).  The effects of managerial feedback on pizza deliverers' intersection stopping and turn signal use.  Presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Behavior Analysis, Atlanta, GA.

Ludwig, T.D. (1991).  Symposium Chairperson.  Behavioral community psychology:  Intervention and assessment programs to increase quality of life.  Division 27 (Regional) program at the annual meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association, New Orleans, LA.

Ludwig, T.D., Kaly, P., & Molnar, A. (1991).  A multiple baseline test of participative versus assigned goal setting methods to promote complete intersection stopping among pizza deliverers.  Presented for Division 27 (Regional) program at the annual meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association, New Orleans, LA.

Kaly, P.W., Ludwig, T.D., & Geller, E.S. (1991).  Comparing directive versus non-directive methods of persuasion:  Getting pizza deliverers to come to a complete stop.  Appears in the Undergraduate Proceedings of the annual meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association, New Orleans, LA.

Molnar, A.E., Ludwig, T.D., & Geller, E.S. (1991).  Locus of control as a predictor of risky driving.  Appears in the Undergraduate Proceedings of the Southeastern Psychological Association, New Orleans, LA.

Yankay, C.L., Ludwig, T.D., & Geller, E.S. (1991).  Does driving record predict future driving behaviors.  Appears in the Undergraduate Proceedings of the Southeastern Psychological Association, New Orleans, LA.

Roberts, D.S., Ludwig, T.D., & Bergholz, K (1990).  Improving driving behaviors of pizza deliverers:  Comparing four intervention strategies.  Presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association,  Boston, MA.

Ludwig, T.D., Gilmore, M.R., & Wangler, J. (1990).  A comparison of educational strategies:  Reward vs. commitment.  Presented by invitation at the annual meeting of the Association for Behavior Analysis, Nashville, TN.

Roberts, S.D., Needleman, L.D., & Ludwig, T.D. (1990).  Exploring individual differences as moderators of intervention effectiveness.  Presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Behavior Analysis, Nashville, TN.

Ludwig, T.D., Geller, E.S., & Roberts, D.S. (1990).  Intervening to increase safe driving among pizza deliverers:  Tests of response generalization.  Presented by invitation for Division 27 (Regional) program at the annual meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association, Atlanta, GA.

Wrangler, J.A., Ludwig, T.D., Kollas, S. & Geller, E.S. (1990).  Applications of behavior analysis to improve the driving practices of pizza deliverers.  Presented at the Southeastern Association for Behavior Analysis Convention, Wilmington, NC.

Ludwig, T.D., Baker, B.A., & Gilmore, M.R. (1989).  Domino's avoids the Noid: Corporate image and safety belt promotion.  Presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, New Orleans, LA.

Ludwig, T.D., Bergholz, K., Porter, B., & Geller, E.S. (1989).  Increasing corporate image through community safety belt promotion.  Presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Society, Arlington, VA.

Ludwig, T.D., Baker, B.A., & Lefkowicz, D.P. (1989).  Safety belt use among pizza delivery employees:  An evaluation of safety training interventions.  Presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Behavior Analysis, Milwaukee, WI.

Ludwig, T.D., & Glindemann, K.E. (1989).  Working with local police departments to increase community-wide safety belt use.  Presented at the annual meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association,  Washington, D

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